Sparrow himself adds, "How difficult it is to achieve a satisfactory analysis may be judged by considering the last poem in A Shropshire Lad. No one can tell for certain which was which. In Laurence Housman also deposited an essay entitled "A.
The essay discussed A. Poem XXX of that sequence, for instance, speaks of how "Fear contended with desire": In More Poems , he buries his love for Moses Jackson in the very act of commemorating it, as his feelings of love are not reciprocated and must be carried unfulfilled to the grave: Because I liked you better Than suits a man to say It irked you, and I promised To throw the thought away.
To put the world between us We parted, stiff and dry; Goodbye, said you, forget me. His poem "Oh who is that young sinner with the handcuffs on his wrists? Ralph Vaughan Williams produced his well-known settings of six songs, the cycle On Wenlock Edge , for string quartet , tenor and piano in Towards the end of World War 1 he was working on his cycle Ludlow and Teme , for voice and string quartet published in ,  and went on to compose the eight-song cycle The Western Playland in The earliest commemoration of Housman was in the chapel of Trinity College in Cambridge, where there is a memorial brass on the south wall.
Gow , who was also the author of a biographical and bibliographical sketch published immediately following his death. He was also a poet whose slim volumes of verse assured him of a secure place on the British Helicon. He died on 30th April at the age of seventy-six. More followed on his Worcestershire birthplace, his homes and school in Bromsgrove.
The work of local sculptor Kenneth Potts, it was unveiled on 22 March The blue plaques in Worcestershire were set up on the centenary of A Shropshire Lad in As the th anniversary of his birth approached, London University inaugurated its Housman lectures on classical subjects in , initially given every second year then annually after These lectures are listed by date of delivery, with date of first publication given separately if different.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other people named Housman, see Housman surname. Retrieved 12 January Housman at University College, London: The Election of ". Retrieved 31 December A Critical Biography pp. Collected Poems and Selected Prose. Roy Birch and Norman Page, ed. Housman, Classical Scholar , Bloomsbury , N. Hopkinson, "Housman and J. Retrieved from " https: Views Read Edit View history.
The term Rosetta Stone is now used in other contexts as the name for the essential clue to a new field of knowledge. The Rosetta Stone is listed as "a stone of black granodiorite , bearing three inscriptions The Rosetta Stone is a fragment of a larger stele. No additional fragments were found in later searches of the Rosetta site.
The top register, composed of Egyptian hieroglyphs, suffered the most damage. Only the last 14 lines of the hieroglyphic text can be seen; all of them are broken on the right side, and 12 of them on the left. The following register of demotic text has survived best; it has 32 lines, of which the first 14 are slightly damaged on the right side. The final register of Greek text contains 54 lines, of which the first 27 survive in full; the rest are increasingly fragmentary due to a diagonal break at the bottom right of the stone.
The date is given as "4 Xandicus" in the Macedonian calendar and "18 Meshir " in the Egyptian calendar , which corresponds to March 27, BC. The decree was issued during a turbulent period in Egyptian history. Tlepolemus, in turn, was replaced as guardian in BC by Aristomenes of Alyzia , who was chief minister at the time of the Memphis decree. Political forces beyond the borders of Egypt exacerbated the internal problems of the Ptolemaic kingdom. Philip had seized several islands and cities in Caria and Thrace , while the Battle of Panium BC had resulted in the transfer of Coele-Syria , including Judaea , from the Ptolemies to the Seleucids.
The stele is a late example of a class of donation stelae, which depicts the reigning monarch granting a tax exemption to the resident priesthood. In earlier periods, all such decrees were issued by the king himself, but the Memphis decree was issued by the priests, as the maintainers of traditional Egyptian culture. The decree concludes with the instruction that a copy was to be placed in every temple, inscribed in the "language of the gods" hieroglyphs , the "language of documents" demotic , and the "language of the Greeks" as used by the Ptolemaic government.
Securing the favour of the priesthood was essential for the Ptolemaic kings to retain effective rule over the populace. The High Priests of Memphis —where the king was crowned—were particularly important, as they were the highest religious authorities of the time and had influence throughout the kingdom.
There exists no one definitive English translation of the decree because of the minor differences between the three original texts, and because modern understanding of the ancient languages continues to develop.
An up-to-date translation by R. Simpson appears on the British Museum website, based on the demotic text. The stele almost certainly did not originate in the town of Rashid Rosetta where it was found, but more likely came from a temple site farther inland, possibly the royal town of Sais.
Later it was incorporated in the foundations of a fortress constructed by the Mameluke Sultan Qaitbay c. Two other inscriptions containing the same Memphis decree have been found since the discovery of the Rosetta Stone: Unlike the Rosetta Stone, the hieroglyphic texts of these other copies of the decree were relatively intact.
The Rosetta Stone had been deciphered long before they were found, but later Egyptologists, including Wallis Budge , used these other copies to refine the reconstruction of the hieroglyphs that must have been used in the lost portions of the hieroglyphic text on the Rosetta Stone. A corps of technical experts savants , known as the Commission des Sciences et des Arts , accompanied the French expeditionary army to Egypt. Bouchard, meanwhile, transported the stone to Cairo for examination by scholars.
Napoleon himself inspected what had already begun to be called la Pierre de Rosette , the Rosetta Stone, shortly before his return to France in August The anonymous reporter expressed a hope that the stone might one day be the key to deciphering hieroglyphs. One of these experts was Jean-Joseph Marcel , a printer and gifted linguist, who is credited as the first to recognise that the middle text was written in the Egyptian Demotic script, rarely used for stone inscriptions and seldom seen by scholars at that time, rather than Syriac as had originally been thought.
The prints that resulted were taken to Paris by General Charles Dugua. Scholars in Europe were now able to see the inscriptions and attempt to read them.
In March , the British landed at Aboukir Bay. Menou was now in command of the French expedition. His troops, including the Commission, marched north towards the Mediterranean coast to meet the enemy, transporting the stone along with many other antiquities. He was defeated in battle, and the remnant of his army retreated to Alexandria where they were surrounded and besieged, the stone now inside the city. Menou surrendered on August After the surrender, a dispute arose over the fate of the French archaeological and scientific discoveries in Egypt, including the artefacts, biological specimens, notes, plans, and drawings collected by the members of the commission.
Menou refused to hand them over, claiming that they belonged to the Institute. Scholars Edward Daniel Clarke and William Richard Hamilton , newly arrived from England, agreed to examine the collections in Alexandria and claimed to have found many artefacts that the French had not revealed.
In a letter home, Clarke said that "we found much more in their possession than was represented or imagined". Eventually an agreement was reached, and the transfer of the objects was incorporated into the Capitulation of Alexandria signed by representatives of the British , French , and Ottoman forces.
It is not clear exactly how the stone was transferred into British hands, as contemporary accounts differ. Colonel Tomkyns Hilgrove Turner was to escort it to England, but he claimed later that he had personally seized it from Menou and carried it away on a gun-carriage. According to Clarke, their informant feared that the stone might be stolen if French soldiers saw it.
Hutchinson was informed at once and the stone was taken away—possibly by Turner and his gun-carriage. It was first seen and discussed there at a meeting on March 11, In the Society created four plaster casts of the inscriptions, which were given to the universities of Oxford , Cambridge , and Edinburgh and to Trinity College Dublin. Soon afterwards, prints of the inscriptions were made and circulated to European scholars.
The stone has been exhibited almost continuously in the British Museum since June The Rosetta Stone was transferred to the sculpture gallery in shortly after Montagu House was demolished and replaced by the building that now houses the British Museum.
The Rosetta Stone was originally displayed at a slight angle from the horizontal, and rested within a metal cradle that was made for it, which involved shaving off very small portions of its sides to ensure that the cradle fitted securely. The museum was concerned about heavy bombing in London towards the end of the First World War in , and the Rosetta Stone was moved to safety, along with other portable objects of value.
Prior to the discovery of the Rosetta Stone and its eventual decipherment, the ancient Egyptian language and script had not been understood since shortly before the fall of the Roman Empire. The usage of the hieroglyphic script had become increasingly specialised even in the later Pharaonic period ; by the 4th century AD, few Egyptians were capable of reading them. Hieroglyphs retained their pictorial appearance, and classical authors emphasised this aspect, in sharp contrast to the Greek and Roman alphabets.
In the 5th century , the priest Horapollo wrote Hieroglyphica , an explanation of almost glyphs. His work was believed to be authoritative, yet it was misleading in many ways, and this and other works were a lasting impediment to the understanding of Egyptian writing. Dhul-Nun al-Misri and Ibn Wahshiyya were the first historians to study hieroglyphs, by comparing them to the contemporary Coptic language used by Coptic priests in their time. The Greek text on the Rosetta Stone provided the starting point.
Ancient Greek was widely known to scholars, but they were not familiar with details of its use in the Hellenistic period as a government language in Ptolemaic Egypt; large-scale discoveries of Greek papyri were a long way in the future. Thus, the earliest translations of the Greek text of the stone show the translators still struggling with the historical context and with administrative and religious jargon.
Stephen Weston verbally presented an English translation of the Greek text at a Society of Antiquaries meeting in April Meanwhile, two of the lithographic copies made in Egypt had reached the Institut de France in Paris in Ameilhon produced the first published translations of the Greek text in , in both Latin and French to ensure that they would circulate widely.
He produced a skilful suggested reconstruction, which was soon being circulated by the Society of Antiquaries alongside its prints of the inscription.
He called it "cursive Coptic" because he was convinced that it was used to record some form of the Coptic language the direct descendant of Ancient Egyptian , although it had few similarities with the later Coptic script. He realised that the middle text was in this same script. They attempted to identify the points where Greek names ought to occur within this unknown text, by comparing it with the Greek.
Silvestre de Sacy eventually gave up work on the stone, but he was to make another contribution. Thus, when Thomas Young , foreign secretary of the Royal Society of London , wrote to him about the stone in , Silvestre de Sacy suggested in reply that in attempting to read the hieroglyphic text, Young might look for cartouches that ought to contain Greek names and try to identify phonetic characters in them.
Young did so, with two results that together paved the way for the final decipherment. He also noticed that these characters resembled the equivalent ones in the Demotic script, and went on to note as many as 80 similarities between the hieroglyphic and Demotic texts on the stone, an important discovery because the two scripts were previously thought to be entirely different from one another. This led him to deduce correctly that the Demotic script was only partly phonetic, also consisting of ideographic characters imitated from hieroglyphs.
Champollion saw copies of the brief hieroglyphic and Greek inscriptions of the Philae obelisk in , on which William John Bankes had tentatively noted the names "Ptolemaios" and "Kleopatra" in both languages. These far older hieroglyphic inscriptions had been copied by Bankes and sent to Champollion by Jean-Nicolas Huyot.
Work on the stone now focused on fuller understanding of the texts and their contexts by comparing the three versions with one another.
Champollion in return promised an analysis of all the points at which the three texts seemed to differ. Whether one of the three texts was the standard version, from which the other two were originally translated, is a question that has remained controversial. Letronne attempted to show in that the Greek version, the product of the Egyptian government under the Macedonian Ptolemies , was the original. Even before the Salvolini affair, disputes over precedence and plagiarism punctuated the decipherment story.
Dacier , but incompletely, according to British critics: The authoritative work on the stone by British Museum curator E.
The portraits were in fact the same size. During , the British Museum presented Egypt with a full-sized replica of the stele. This was initially displayed in the renovated Rashid National Museum , close to the site where the stone was found.
As John Ray has observed, "the day may come when the stone has spent longer in the British Museum than it ever did in Rosetta.
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