This is generally only a guide and is not set in stone; in most cases this limit does not include appendices and citation pages. If you plan to write for a specific journal , a good advice is to check the research paper outline of some of the articles to get a better idea on how to write your article.
Here are a few outline samples. If your report is complex and strays over this limit, there should be no problem, as long as you have not repeated yourself or filled your work with irrelevant information. It is good practice to bear in mind that the appendix is there for any information that you feel could be omitted from the report without affecting the clarity.
Your report can be shorter than the advised word limit if everything that needs to be included is there. For longer reports, it is useful to break each section down into subsections, to make your report more reader friendly and easier to navigate.
The vast majority of scientific reports can be broken down into the following constituent parts. Although the title is the shortest page of your report, it is often the most difficult to write. It is important to make clear to a researcher everything that needs saying but without the title being overlong and unwieldy. It does not have to be the first section written because, in many cases, the final title will not occur to you until you have finished writing the report.
Nowadays, most research establishments have a database to search titles by keyword so try to make sure that your title contains these.
This is doubly important if your research is likely to be published on the internet. The authors section should include your name, as the main writer of the report, alongside the name of your supervisor.
In the case of working as part of a team, you should usually include the other members of your group here. The abstract is the most crucial part of the report because anybody searching for your research on a database or in a journal will usually read only the abstract. Therefore, it must summarize your research, results and conclusions in less than words. Sometimes it is good to think of it as a sample of your research rather than a review ; it should inform the researcher that your article contains the information they need.
There are a few ideas on how to write your abstract but the best advice is that you look at some journals relevant to your research and try to format your abstract in a similar way. This section and is merely a breakdown of sections and subsections by page number. For a short and straightforward paper it may not be necessary to include a contents page. This is not mandatory for a research paper.
This section of your report is where you will document all the painstaking research into the background of your experiment. The main thing to bear in mind, when writing the introduction , is that a scientist who is unfamiliar with your exact subject matter may be reading the article. It is important, therefore, to try and give a quick and condensed history of the research leading to your experiment, with correct citations. You should also give a little background on why you chose to do this particular experiment and what you expect to find.
For this portion of your report you must describe the methods used when performing the experiment. This should include, if relevant, the location and times of sample collection, what equipment was utilized, and the techniques used. The idea behind the methodology section is that another researcher can exactly replicate your experiments without having to guess what equipment and what techniques should be used.
Scientific articles are peer reviewed and this includes the possibility that other researchers may try to replicate your results. There have been many high profile scientific breakthroughs over the years whose results were unable to be repeated; these experiments were disregarded. For field studies you should give an exact map reference and time as well as including a map in the appendix.
If you used complex machinery or computer programs in the course of your experiment, to avoid breaking the flow of your report, you should give only the main information and refer to the exact technical specifications in the appendix.
These should be a quick synopsis of the facts, figures and statistical tests used to arrive at your final results. You should try to avoid cluttering up your report and insert most of your raw data into the appendix. It is far better to stick with including only tables and graphs that show clearly the results.
Do not be tempted to insert large numbers of graphs and figures just for the sake of it; each figure and graph should be mentioned, referred to and discussed in the text.
Try to avoid putting in tables and graphs showing the same information; select the type that shows your results most clearly. It is usually preferable to use graphs and relegate the tables to the appendix because it is easier to show trends in graphical format. Figures and graphs should be clear and occupy at least half a page; you are not a magazine editor trying to fit a small graph into an article. All such information must be numbered, as diagrams for graphs and illustrations, and figures for tables; they should be referred to by this number in the body of the report.
You do not need to put the full breakdown of the calculations used for your statistical tests; most scientists hate statistics and are only interested in whether your results were significant or not. Relegate the calculations to the appendix.
The results section of your report should be neutral and you should avoid discussing your results or how they differed from or compared with what was expected. This information belongs in the next section. This is the pivotal section of your hard work in obtaining and analyzing your results.
In your discussion you should seek to discuss your findings, and describe how they compared and differed from the results you expected. In a nutshell, you are trying to show whether your hypothesis was proved, not proved or inconclusive. You must be extremely critical of yourself in this section; you will not get marked down for mistakes in experiment design or for poor results, only for not recognizing them.
Essentially, an outline will spare you from time-consuming mistakes and allow you to focus your energy on crafting a compelling, eloquent and educational research paper. Outlines are an effective tool to make sure your paper follows a logical progression. Before you write your outline, you will also need to spend a significant amount of time on the preparational aspects of your assignment.
Some of the principal activities in that department will include the brainstorming of ideas, the collection of notes and the separating of primary and secondary ideas into organized groups.
Once you are ready to write your first outline, the easiest approach could be to start with a high Roman numeral level for all the main concepts and then add secondary levels letters to account for all the details.
With the introduction, you put the topic of your paper into context for your audience. If you were to write a paper about involuntary celibacy incel among men, you would introduce the topic by a defining the problem in one line, b specifying the segment of men affected by this problem and c mentioning the words and phrases that constantly apply to this topic, like beta male and incel.
The thesis will state the purpose of your research with either a stance or an observation. This sentence is the culmination of your introduction, and the text that follows will explore and challenge the idea put forth in this sentence.
A thesis on the topic of incels could summarize the rise and prevalence of this problem and what society as a whole, and women in particular, could do to make things better for these men. Now that the topic and purpose of your paper has been clearly laid out for the reader, you should follow that up with background information. In this section, you could provide estimates on the current number of people affected by the problem in question, or you could compare the present day state of things in this regard with earlier times.
This should also be the section where you indicate how your research will add to the overall discussion on your chosen topic. On the topic of male involuntary celibacy, you could talk about whether the problem has escalated proportionately in other countries over the last few decades or if it has mostly been confined to the United States. If your research leads you to the latter conclusion, you could offer some general ideas of why things have turned out that way.
The major points in a research paper are the key elements that support your thesis. Each of your major points should move your paper from strength to strength, adding up to a body of solid evidence that supports your stance on the topic at hand. With every major point, there should be a claim that ties in with the principle argument of your thesis. One major point to address would be the social anxieties suffered by male incels.
Here, you could talk about how incels—some of whom are handsome, well-groomed and financially successful—will have typically struggled, unsuccessfully, to overcome their awkwardness and interact with women. This would be the point where you would clarify that involuntary celibacy is rooted in problems far deeper than mere shyness. Each major point should be supported with one or two minor points. While not meriting its own section, a minor point can add insight and understanding to its corresponding major point.
For the above major point, a suitable minor point would be for you to debunk the simplistic types of knee jerk responses that most people would have towards this topic, such as "these men just need to get out and interact more often. The proceeding pages of your paper will consist of further major and minor points, each of which should build upon the prior point and all of which should lend additional weight to your thesis.
Once you have covered all the relevant points, you should then be ready to conclude your research paper. Minor topics here could touch upon things like the ineffectiveness of pickup routines for most incels, the detrimental effects of hypergamy among women and the erroneous stereotypes that are waged at men who cannot get sex.
The close of your paper should include a recapitulation of the main argument and its relevance to society at large, as well as suggestions on things that could be done to curb the problem at hand. For the topic of incels, you could conclude the paper by summarizing the current extent of the problem and suggest some ways that women could help these men overcome their awkwardness and live better lives.
A social underclass of involuntarily celibate men incels has resulted in the U. A Relatively Recent Problem: In prior generations, men developed social skills and backbone through upbringings based on work and community involvement cite sources.
Teaching males to be polite and risk averse has rendered many men sexually invisible in the eyes of women cite sources. Involuntary celibacy has not been prevalent in Europe or South America, where most boys are taught behaviors that instill them with "game" as they reach sexual maturity cite sources. Holes in Prior Studies: Few researchers have explored the part that women have played in dividing men into categories of alphas, betas and omegas cite sources.
Even after years of effort to overcome this problem, most incels suffer from extreme social anxieties and find it nearly impossible to interact with the opposite sex. Simplistic advice like "these men just need to get out and interact more often," is both unhelpful and condescending; most of these men have tried that numerous times to no avail cite sources. The assumption that male incels are uniformly ill-groomed, overweight and ugly is untrue in many cases cite sources.
In contemporary urban culture, the hook-up based dating scene has been very isolating for socially awkward men.
Aug 23, · Writing an outline for a research paper can seem like a time consuming task, and you may not understand the value of it if you have never written one before. Outlines can help you structure your research and your final paper in much more efficient ways, though, so it is a good idea that you learn 77%(62).
Research Paper Outline Examples Once you've decided what topic you will be writing about, the next thing you should pay attention to is the scope of your paper or what you will be including in your discussion.
Writing a Paper: Outlining Print Page Report a broken link. Overview; justify the discussion of this topic by pointing out a connection to a current problem that your paper will help address. The purpose of this section is to justify your own project or paper by pointing out a gap in the current research which your work will address. Taking the time to draft an outline can help you determine if your ideas connect to each other, what order of ideas works best, where gaps in your thinking may exist, or whether you have sufficient evidence to support each of your points. For a standard research paper of pages, Outlining. Department of English Writing Guide.
How To Write A Research Paper Outline having trouble? Don't waste your time take expert research Paper Writers help For Completing your paper writing at cheaper price/5(K). Looking for help on how to write a research paper outline? This guide explains how to format, structure, and write a research outline.