For this example, a historical structure would be appropriate as you could start with the earliest examples and work your way through to the present. Your point of view is taking the perspective of one side, so in this case it would also be appropriate to cite information that takes the other side of the argument and then critically evaluate the validity of that information. You would likely need to discredit the validity by citing opposing evidence. You can analyze the information using quantitative methods, qualitative methods, or a mixture of both.
This stage involves revising the information, including what is kept intact, and what is tweaked, reduced and eliminated. Peer reviews and field experts can be an invaluable resource during this stage, especially prior to submitting the review to an academic committee.
You may need multiple revisions once the academic committee or dissertation supervisor reviews your work. Do not be discouraged by the revision process, as the supervisor and committee are there to help refine your dissertation to increase its chances of becoming publishable material. After you finish your literature review, look at the notes you made about the information.
What unfulfilled question appears to be the most promising in terms of testability? A restricted diet of 1, to 1, calories per day leads to a simultaneous decrease in body fat percentage, overall weight, and muscle weight percentages. A restricted diet of 1, to 1, calories per day does not lead to a simultaneous decrease in body fat percentage, overall weight, and muscle weight percentages.
Is your question going to be making a prediction, describing an observation, or describing a pattern? This will determine how you write the hypothesis and shape it. The independent variable can best be identified by isolating what factor is causing a difference, or what factor represents a polar-opposite difference.
Be sure to sync your hypothesis with your methodology covered below. It might also make sense to have access to participants who currently have an unhealthy or high percentage of body fat. The next section should explain how the data was collected and how the data was analyzed. Be sure to also give a description of your technique.
Explain why your data is reliable and others can trust its accuracy. Also, explain the reasoning behind limitations to your sample size and analysis. An example would be why only one type of demographic was surveyed. Think about how you want to organize your discussion into various sections, either by the eight points of discussion mentioned previously in this guide or by combining some of those points into larger chunks.
Also, determine what results you will present in graphs and charts. Will those be inserted into the body of the discussion or be included in the appendices? Be sure to evaluate the meaning of your results and discuss whether those meanings are significant.
The second set of sections should discuss whether personal or outside biases impacted the results. While you should work to mitigate these biases, acknowledge any suspicion of them. Spend time showing your reader why your results are relevant, and why and how the results could impact the field.
A discussion of the limitations should state the limitation s in terms of the methodology or approach, followed by an explanation of how the methodology or approach could be expanded. Did your results bring up any questions the results themselves were unable to answer? Discuss those questions here and also suggest that these questions could be developed into future research studies.
Alternatively, did your results indicate the need for a follow-up study? If so, briefly discuss what that follow-up study will need to entail. The conclusion should instill the main idea you want your readers to take away from your study.
You should discuss your dissertation structure and content with an academic advisor or supervisory committee. Samples of written dissertation discussions can also help immensely, since samples demonstrate structure, content and tone. Also, by presenting your main findings before your secondary findings, your readers can get a better sense of what they can take away from your research.
The main findings should not only be more prevalent in terms of recurrence, but also significance. Secondary findings will not necessarily make as much of an impact as your main findings, but are either worth mentioning or raise questions about the need for additional research. The roadmap you provide to your readers should be contained within the first paragraph of the results section.
Tell readers exactly what they can expect to read. Ideally, the roadmap will consist of one paragraph and provide readers with a complete outline of your results section. The data results you captured that reflect on your study in a positive way can be the beginning of your second paragraph.
Your primary results in the positive category should go first. If you are presenting visual aids in the appendices, make sure you refer to them in the paragraph. The data results that retract from your study will need to be presented in a similar fashion. The best way to determine what is primary versus what is secondary is to ask whether the results tie in with your research question.
Do the results provide an answer to the research question? The main point to remember is not to confuse the results section with the discussion section, if they need to be separate. Pull out the main points of each section, revisit your thesis, look for weaknesses you can strengthen, and think about your recommendations and how your research is different from others.
Think about why your research and its results matter, not only to you and your academic discipline, but to the community at large. In other words, how does it make a difference? The first part of the conclusion section needs to review the most significant information from each section of the dissertation.
How will this data have an effect? What do you believe that effect will be? Were they what you expected and why? Do the results prove an idea that was previously unproven or thought of as unlikely? Think about these questions when in the final writing stage, or editing stage of your dissertation. The concluding paragraphs should state the most significant factor about your study and how future researchers could possibly expand upon it.
Writing a conclusion can be both simple and complex. Writing a full dissertation can be an exhaustive, but exhilarating process.
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Chapters to Include in Your Dissertation. Outline the foundation Map out an outline that summarizes the content you anticipate writing about in your subsequent sections. Use enticing language The introduction is your chance to spark interest in your dissertation and your research study.
Details to include in a literature review. Characteristic Angles Concentration Theories, practical implementations, research methods and results Objective Determine main problems, critical analysis, synthesis Point-of-view Neutral, supportive of a perspective Structure Methodological, historical, conceptual Scope All-encompassing, wide with some selectivity, focused on main points, narrowed to a significant point Readership Public, practitioners, academics, academic specialists.
What is a hypothesis? Hypothesis type Definition Explanatory A statement that seeks to explain an observation. The statement can be tested, proven true, or proven false. Generalizing A statement that describes a pattern that has been noticed or witnessed. Prediction A statement that predicts a certain variable will impact other variables within restrictions of an experiment.
Independent and dependent variables. The methodology will address: An explanation of the approach Justification for the approach How your approach compares to past studies and research on your topic How reliable your data is Whether your approach and data have any limitations Out of all the sections of a dissertation, the methodology is critical to its acceptance.
What has already been done? The three philosophical approaches. Were the results consistent with your thesis statement or hypothesis? What are the main insights you or your reader will be able to gain from the results?
Devote some time to the results of other studies from your literature review. The differences between methodology and results. Opening paragraph Briefly state what your general topic is about and give some background information on it. Did somebody miss something? Beginning Define your main research problem or question. What to include in an introduction. A considerable amount of skill is required to write a good abstract.
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The primary aim of this chapter is to provide the readers with an idea of what the paper is about and it should help them decide whether to read the complete text. The responses received show that feeling a large social distance leads to more donation intentions that feeling a small social distance.
These results indicate that social distance does have an impact on donation intentions. On this basis, it is recommended that environmental groups portray a significant social distance in fund-raising campaigns for their climate change activities.
Further research could be undertaken to identify other factors it would be helpful for such organizations to bear in mind when selecting the best images for such campaigns.
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How to Write an Abstract for Your Thesis or Dissertation What is an Abstract? The abstract is an important component of your thesis. Presented at the beginning of the thesis, it is likely the first substantive description of your work read by an external examiner. You should view it as an opportunity to set accurate expectations. The abstract is a summary of the whole thesis.
An abstract is essentially a concise summary of what a dissertation is about with a clear overview of the research work the writer has undertaken and their conclusions. The primary aim of this chapter is to provide the readers with an idea of what the paper is about and it should help them decide whether to read the complete text.
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